Created By:Arjun Rastogi | Created Date :28 April, 2023
GSM is Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is an open standard created by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to define the protocols for second generation (2G) digital cell networks utilized by mobile devices, such as tablets and mobile phones. GSM can also be a trademark that is owned by the GSM Association. GSM could also be a reference to the Full Rate voice codec.
It was first introduced in Finland in the month of December. In the late 2010s it was an international standard for mobile communication, with more than 90 percent market share and being used in more than 193 nations and regions.
2G networks were developed to replace the 1G (1G) analog mobile networks. The GSM standard initially described an electronic, circuit-switched network designed for full duplex voice telephone. The network grew over time and included data communications, initially through circuit-switched transport, and later through packet data transport using General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates to GSM Evolution (EDGE).
In the latter half of 2010 in the late 2010s, several carriers around the world began to end in the late 2010s, various carriers worldwide began to shut down their GSM networks. But, as a result of the widespread use of GSM of the acronym "GSM" continues to be employed as a generic term to refer to the many different
G mobile phone technology developed from it.
In 1983, the first steps were taken to create an European standard for voice telecommunications using digital technology. In 1983, the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) created in 1983 the Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) committee, and later an ongoing technical support group that was with its headquarters in Paris. Five years after, in 1987, the representatives of 15 European nations agreed to sign a memorandum in Copenhagen to design and establish the same cellular phone system across Europe and EU rules were adopted to establish GSM a standard that must be used. The decision to establish a standard for continental use eventually led to a single open, standard-based network that was bigger than the one of the United States.
A GSM MoU was tabled for signing in September. The MoU attracted mobile operators from all over Europe to commit to investing in the development of new GSM networks, with an ambitious date.
In the 38-week time frame, all of Europe (countries and industries) had been unified behind GSM with a rare unanimity and speed facilitated by four officials from the public sector: Armin Silberhorn (Germany), Stephen Temple (UK), Philippe Dupuis (France) as well as Renzo Failli (Italy).
The IEEE/RSE conferred the two members Thomas Haug and Philippe Dupuis the 2018 James Clerk Maxwell medal for their "leadership in the creation of the first mobile communications standard and the an evolution to global data communications for smartphones". It is believed that the GSM (2G) is now grown into 4G/3G and even 5G.
Parallel to this, France and Germany have signed an agreement for joint development in 1984, and were later followed to Italy as well as in the UK at the time of 1986. In 1986 the European Commission proposed reserving the spectrum band 900 MHz to GSM.
In 2021, a Former Nokia engineering manager PekkaLonka was revealed to Helsingin Sanomat that she had made the test call an hour earlier. "World's initial GSM phone call actually initiated by me. I called MarjoJousinen, in Salo. ", Lonka informed. The next year saw the launch of the first short message service (SMS or "text message") message. Moreover, Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first roaming international agreement.